PLACENTAS FOR OBTAINING DIVERSE THERAPEUTIC AGENTS
Human Placentas have been researched for many decades world-wide. Recently there have been proposals to utilize their tissues which contain a myriad of biological molecules, as therapeutic agents, that may have tremendous potential for clinical applications for many pathological conditions. (1) Further, a prominent type of cell of placental tissues, trophoblasts, contain factors that confer viral resistance from maternal blood to the growing fetus.(2) Though most of the research with placental tissues are focusing on using these fetal-type cells as implantable stem cells, a more practical use of the cells therein should prove to have superior clinical applications. The clinical usage of placental tissues in any manner overcomes the world-wide controversy of the use the embryonic stem cells. Placental tissues, which are fetal tissues, are readily available everywhere on planet Earth. In the past they have been discarded. Furthermore, resent research has shown the even frozen placental tissue retains its biological activity. Using these tissues with microbiological technologies will produce therapeutic molecules that could potentially enhance many clinical applications. These molecules are the same products that our bodies produce for our total health maintenance. The usage of these natural human molecules as therapeutic agents should eliminate the side effects of implanting live stem cells that are not autologous.
THERAPEUTIC MOLECULES CONTAINED IN PLACENTAS
Placenta’s villainous tissues are composed three layers of components with different cell types in each. 1-Trophoblasts (2 types, one a stem cell type) that form the interface between the fetus and the maternal environment. 2- Mesenchymal cells and Fibroblasts. 3- Fetal vascular cells. The various cell types of each component layers have been continuously researched for decades. (3) The remarkable orchestration of the placental’s role of initiating and producing a total term human baby remains enigmatic.
Nonetheless, the molecules that contribute to this accomplishment in many cases have been identified, such as a myriad of growth factors. (3) In 1984 Cellular Fibronectin was isolated and characterized from placental tissues. (4) The purification of the structural molecules and growth factors within placental tissues should contribute many clinical applications for the enhancement of Regenerative Medicine.
LARGE SCALE TISSUE CUTURE FOR PLACENTAL CELLS
There is carefully researched evidence the that full term fetal type placental cells could be propagated for over 100 doublings. Further, telomere activity had been monitored for these long term culture and it was found that these cells did not show any signs of aging. (1)
Therefore, large scale cell culture of these fetal placental cells could be expanded exponentially so that molecular production and manufacture could complete with Biotech technologies.
The concepts proposed in this paper will solve the following problems facing Biotech companies and Stem cell clinical endeavors:
Elimination of the philosophical problem of embryonic stem cell usage.
Elimination of the immunological factors in stem cell transplants.
Biotech technologies usually cannot produce exacting total natural molecules.
Regenerative Medicine has not as yet been consistently nor totally attained. There is a naivety in the use of stem cells therapeutically. It is the MOLECULES that cells produce that are the therapeutic agents. If stem cells are regionally transplanted and are not adaptable to that particular area, they would not produce the specific molecular therapeutic agents for healing that particular pathology. Biotech technologies have not produced exacting molecules the human bodies recognize as self without side effects. The proposals herein could eliminate these clinical conundrums.
1. Multiplipotent Stromal Stem Cells from Human Placental Demonstrate
HighTherapeutic Potential.Igor Nazarov, et al. Stem Cells Trans Med 2012
2. Autophagy as a mechanism of antiviral defense at the maternal?fetal
interface. Delorme-Axford E, et al. Autophagy 2013 Dec 1; 9(12): 2173-2174
3. Chapter 4 Cell Types of the Placenta. Wang Y, and Zhao S. Vascular
Biology of the Placenta. Bookshelf ID NBK 53245.
4. Isolation and characterization of human placenta fibronectin. Isemura M. et al. J Biochem 1984 Jul; 96(1) 163-9.